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Journal Description

JMIR Diabetes (JD, Editor-in-Chief: Caroline Richardson) is a Pubmed-indexed sister journal of JMIR (the leading open-access journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2018: 4.945). JMIR Diabetes focuses on technologies, medical devices, apps, engineering, informatics and patient education for diabetes prevention, self-management, care, and cure, to help people with diabetes.

As open access journal JD is read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies, as well as on diabetes prevention and epidemiology.

We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews) covering for example wearable devices and trackers, mobile apps, glucose monitoring (including emerging technologies such as Google contact lens), medical devices for insulin and metabolic peptide delivery, closed loop systems and artificial pancreas, telemedicine, web-based diabetes education and elearning, innovations for patient self-management and "quantified self", diabetes-specific EHR improvements, clinical or consumer-focused software, diabetes epidemiology and surveillance, crowdsourcing and quantified self-based research data, new sensors and actuators to be applied to diabetes.


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Municipalidad de Córdoba; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Small Data and Its Visualization for Diabetes Self-Management: Qualitative Study


    Background: As digital healthcare expands to include the use of mobile devices, there are opportunities to integrate these technologies into the self-management of chronic disease. Purpose built apps for diabetes self-management are plentiful and vary in functionality; they offer capability for individuals to record, manage, display, and interpret their own data. The optimal incorporation of mobile tablets into diabetes self-care is little explored in research, and guidelines for use are scant. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine an individual’s use of mobile devices and apps in the self-management of type 2 diabetes to establish the potential and value of this ubiquitous technology for chronic healthcare. Methods: In a 9-month intervention, 28 patients at a large multidisciplinary healthcare center were gifted internet connected Apple iPads with preinstalled apps and given digital support to use them. They were invited to take up predefined activities, which included recording their own biometrics, monitoring their diet, and traditional online information seeking. Four online surveys captured the participants’ perceptions and health outcomes throughout the study. This article reports on the qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses in all four surveys. Results: Using apps, participants self-curated small data sets that included their blood glucose level, blood pressure, weight, and dietary intake. The dynamic visualizations of the data in the form of charts and diagrams were created using apps and participants were able to interpret the impact of their choices and behaviors from the diagrammatic form of their small personal data sets. Findings are presented in four themes: (1) recording personal data; (2) modelling and visualizing the data; (3) interpreting the data; and (4) empowering and improving health. Conclusions: The modelling capability of apps using small personal data sets, collected and curated by individuals, and the resultant graphical information that can be displayed on tablet screens proves a valuable asset for diabetes self-care. Informed by their own data, individuals are well-positioned to make changes in their daily lives that will improve their health.

  • Person using Mobile Diabetes Advice for Dads app on mobile phone. Source: Anastasia Albanese-O'Neill; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Designing Online and Mobile Diabetes Education for Fathers of Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Mixed Methods Study


    Background: Fathers make unique and central contributions to the health of their children. However, research in type 1 diabetes (T1D) education largely ignores the needs of fathers, including during the development of online and mobile educational materials. Objective: The purpose of this study was to solicit and incorporate input from fathers of children with T1D into the design, content, and infrastructure of a suite of online diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) resources. Methods: The study took part in three phases: (1) exploratory research, (2) website and subdomain development, and (3) evaluation. Fathers of children with T1D (n=30) completed surveys and semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to identify fathers’ content and design preferences. An online DSMES website ( and a separate mobile subdomain targeting fathers (Mobile Diabetes Advice for Dads, or mDAD) were developed. A prototype of the site for fathers was evaluated by 33 additional father participants. End user feedback was elicited via survey. Results: Participants in the exploratory phase were enthusiastic about the online diabetes resources. Preferences included high-quality design, availability via mobile phone and tablet, brief text content supplemented with multimedia and interactive features, reminders via text or email, endorsement by medical professionals, and links to scientific evidence. The mDAD subdomain received high usability and acceptability ratings, with 100% of participants very likely or likely to use the site again. Conclusions: The development of eHealth educational platforms for fathers of children with T1D remains an unmet need in optimizing diabetes management. This study incorporated fathers’ feedback into the development of a suite of online diabetes education resources. The findings will serve as the basis for future research to assess the clinical efficacy of the website, its subdomain targeting fathers, and additional subdomains targeting unique populations.

  • Diabetes management. Source: Colourbox; Copyright: Colourbox; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    A Digital Diabetes Prevention Program (Transform) for Adults With Prediabetes: Secondary Analysis


    Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing among adults globally. Research has demonstrated that a diabetes prevention program (DPP), which focuses on developing and maintaining health-promoting lifestyle modifications, can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes among at-risk individuals. The implementation of a digitally adapted DPP has the potential to prevent prediabetes on a national and global scale by using technology and behavior change science. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a novel digital therapeutic DPP (Transform) on weight loss, body mass index (BMI), exercise frequency, and work absenteeism. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of retrospective data of adults with prediabetes who were enrolled in the Transform DPP from December 2016 to December 2017. The program incorporates interactive mobile computing, remote monitoring, an evidence-based curriculum, behavior tracking tools, health coaching, and online peer support to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. The analysis included data that were collected at baseline and after 4 months of the Transform DPP. Results: The sample (N=273) comprised people with prediabetes who completed 4 months of the Transform program. Participants included 70.3% women, with a mean age of 54.0 (SD 11.2) years. On average, participants decreased their weight by 13.3 lbs (6.5%) and their BMI by 1.9 kg/m2. On average, participants increased their exercise frequency by 1.7 days per week, and absenteeism was reduced by almost half a day per month. Conclusions: These results suggest that the digital therapeutic DPP (Transform) is effective at preventing type 2 diabetes through a significant reduction in body weight and an increase of physical activity. A prospective, controlled clinical study is warranted to validate these findings.

  • The Dexcom G4 continuous blood glucose monitor. Source: Flickr; Copyright: Pearlsa; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial (CC-BY-NC).

    An Evaluation of Digital Health Tools for Diabetes Self-Management in Hispanic Adults: Exploratory Study


    Background: Although multiple self-monitoring technologies for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show promise for improving T2DM self-care behaviors and clinical outcomes, they have been understudied in Hispanic adult populations who suffer disproportionately from T2DM. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and potential integration of wearable sensors for diabetes self-monitoring among Hispanic adults with self-reported T2DM. Methods: We conducted a pilot study of T2DM self-monitoring technologies among Hispanic adults with self-reported T2DM. Participants (n=21) received a real-time continuous glucose monitor (RT-CGM), a wrist-worn physical activity (PA) tracker, and a tablet-based digital food diary to self-monitor blood glucose, PA, and food intake, respectively, for 1 week. The RT-CGM captured viewable blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) and PA trackers collected accelerometer-based data, viewable on the device or an associated tablet app. After 1 week of use, we conducted a semistructured interview with each participant to understand experiences and thoughts on integration of the data from the devices into a technology-facilitated T2DM self-management intervention. We also conducted a brief written questionnaire to understand participants’ self-reported T2DM history and past experience using digital health tools for T2DM self-management. Feasibility was measured by device utilization and objective RT-CGM, PA tracker, and diet logging data. Acceptability and potential integration were evaluated through thematic analysis of verbatim interview transcripts. Results: Participants (n=21, 76% female, 50.4 [SD 11] years) had a mean self-reported hemoglobin A1c of 7.4 [SD 1.8] mg/dL and had been diagnosed with T2DM for 7.4 [SD 5.2] years (range: 1-16 years). Most (89%) were treated with oral medications, whereas the others self-managed through diet and exercise. Nearly all participants (n=20) used both the RT-CGM and PA tracker, and 52% (11/21) logged at least one meal, with 33% (7/21) logging meals for 4 or more days. Of the 8 possible days, PA data were recorded for 7.1 [SD 1.8] days (range: 2-8), and participants averaged 7822 [SD 3984] steps per day. Interview transcripts revealed that participants felt most positive about the RT-CGM as it unveiled previously unknown relationships between lifestyle and health and contributed to changes in T2DM-related thoughts and behaviors. Participants felt generally positive about incorporating the wearable sensors and mobile apps into a future intervention if support were provided by a health coach or health care provider, device training were provided, apps were tailored to their language and culture, and content were both actionable and delivered on a single platform. Conclusions: Sensor-based tools for facilitating T2DM self-monitoring appear to be a feasible and acceptable technology among low-income Hispanic adults. We identified barriers to acceptability and highlighted preferences for wearable sensor integration in a community-based intervention. These findings have implications for the design of T2DM interventions targeting Hispanic adults.

  • Source: freepik; Copyright: nensuria; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Design and Prestudy Assessment of a Dashboard for Presenting Self-Collected Health Data of Patients With Diabetes to Clinicians: Iterative Approach and...


    Background: Introducing self-collected health data from patients with diabetes into consultation can be beneficial for both patients and clinicians. Such an initiative can allow patients to be more proactive in their disease management and clinicians to provide more tailored medical services. Optimally, electronic health record systems (EHRs) should be able to receive self-collected health data in a standard representation of medical data such as Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR), from patients systems like mobile health apps and display the data directly to their users—the clinicians. However, although Norwegian EHRs are working on implementing FHIR, no solution or graphical interface is available today to display self-collected health data. Objective: The objective of this study was to design and assess a dashboard for displaying relevant self-collected health data from patients with diabetes to clinicians. Methods: The design relied on an iterative participatory process involving workshops with patients, clinicians, and researchers to define which information should be available and how it should be displayed. The assessment is based on a case study, presenting an instance of the dashboard populated with data collected from one patient with diabetes type 1 (in-house researcher) face-to-face by 14 clinicians. We performed a qualitative analysis based on usability, functionality, and expectation by using responses to questionnaires that were distributed to the 14 clinicians at the end of the workshops and collected before the participants left. The qualitative assessment was guided by the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research. Results: We created a dashboard permitting clinicians to assess the reliability of self-collected health data, list all collected data including medical calculations, and highlight medical situations that need to be investigated to improve the situation of the patients. The dashboard uses a combination of tables, graphs, and other visual representations to display the relevant information. Clinicians think that this type of solution will be useful during consultations every day, especially for patients living in remote areas or those who are technologically interested. Conclusions: Displaying self-collected health data during consultations is not enough for clinicians; the data reliability has to be assured and the relevant information needs to be extracted and displayed along with the data to ease the introduction during a medical encounter. The prestudy assessment showed that the system provides relevant information to meet clinicians’ need and that clinicians were eager to start using it during consultations. The system has been under testing in a medical trial since November 2018, and the first results of its assessment in a real-life situation are expected in the beginning of next year (2020).

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Ars Electronica; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Experiences of Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Using Glucose Sensor–Based Mobile Technology for Glycemic Variability: Qualitative Study


    Background: Adults with type 1 diabetes (PWDs) face challenging self-management regimens including monitoring their glucose values multiple times a day to assist with achieving glycemic targets and reduce the risk of long-term diabetes complications. Recent advances in diabetes technology have reportedly improved glycemia, but little is known about how PWDs utilize mobile technology to make positive changes in their diabetes self-management. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore PWDs’ experiences using Sugar Sleuth, a glucose sensor–based mobile app and Web-based reporting system, integrated with the FreeStyle Libre glucose monitor that provides feedback about glycemic variability. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive research design and conducted semistructured interviews with 10 PWDs (baseline mean glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c) 8.0%, (SD 0.45); 6 males and 4 females, aged 52 years (SD 15), type 1 diabetes (T1D) duration 31 years (SD 13), 40% (4/10, insulin pump) following a 14-week intervention during which they received clinical support and used Sugar Sleuth to evaluate and understand their glucose data. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis and NVivo 11 (QSR International Pty Ltd). Results: A total of 4 main themes emerged from the data. Participants perceived Sugar Sleuth as an Empowering Tool that served to inform lifestyle choices and diabetes self-management tasks, promoted preemptive self-care actions, and improved discussions with clinicians. They also described Sugar Sleuth as providing a Source of Psychosocial Support and offering relief from worry, reducing glycemic uncertainty, and supporting positive feelings about everyday life with diabetes. Participants varied in their Approaches to Glycemic Data: 40% (4/10) described using Sugar Sleuth to review data, understand glycemic cause and effect, and plan for future self-care. On the contrary, 60% (6/10) were reluctant to review past data; they described receiving benefits from the immediate numbers and trend arrows, but the app still prompted them to enter in the suspected causes of glucose excursions within hours of their occurrence. Finally, only 2 participants voiced Concerns About Use of Sugar Sleuth; they perceived the app as sometimes too demanding of information or as not attuned to the socioeconomic backgrounds of PWDs from diverse populations. Conclusions: Results suggest that Sugar Sleuth can be an effective educational tool to enhance both patient-clinician collaboration and diabetes self-management. Findings also highlight the importance of exploring psychosocial and socioeconomic factors that may advance the understanding of PWDs’ individual differences when using glycemic technology and may promote the development of customized mobile tools to improve diabetes self-management.

  • A woman using Writing for Health on a laptop. Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Web-Based Benefit-Finding Writing for Adults with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial


    Background: The high prevalence of diabetes distress and subclinical depression in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) indicates the need for low-intensity self-help interventions that can be used in a stepped care approach to address some of their psychological needs. However, people with diabetes can be reluctant to engage in mental health care. Benefit-finding writing (BFW) is a brief intervention that involves writing about any positive thoughts and feelings concerning a stressful experience such as an illness, avoiding potential mental health stigma. It has been associated with increases in positive affect and positive growth and has demonstrated promising results in trials in other clinical populations. However, BFW has not been examined in people with diabetes. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a Web-based BFW intervention for reducing diabetes distress and increasing benefit finding in diabetic adults with T1DM or T2DM compared to a control writing condition. Methods: Adults with T1DM or T2DM and diabetes distress were recruited online through the open access Writing for Health program. After completing baseline questionnaires, they were randomly allocated to receive online BFW or an active control condition of online writing about the use of time (CW). Both groups completed 15-minute online writing sessions, once per day, for 3 consecutive days. Online measures were administered at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months postintervention. Participants were also asked to rate their current mood immediately prior to and following each writing session. Results: Seventy-two adults with T1DM or T2DM were recruited and randomly allocated to receive BFW (n=24) or CW (n=48). Participants adhered to the BFW regimen. Greater increases in positive affect immediately postwriting were found in the BFW group than in the CW group. However, there were no significant group-by-time interactions (indicating intervention effects) for benefit finding or diabetes distress at either the 1-month or 3-month follow-up. Both the BFW and CW groups demonstrated small, significant decreases in diabetes distress over time. Conclusions: BFW was well tolerated by adults with diabetes in this study but did not demonstrate efficacy in improving diabetes distress or benefit finding compared to an active control writing condition. However, due to recruitment difficulties, the study was underpowered and the sample was skewed to individuals with minimal diabetes distress and none to minimal depression and anxiety at baseline. Future research should continue to investigate the efficacy of variants of therapeutic writing for adults with T1DM or T2DM, using larger samples of participants with elevated diabetes distress. Trial Registration: Australiand New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000241538;

  • A diabetes blood sugar test kit. Source: Foter; Copyright: Jessica Merz; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Text Messaging and Type 1 Diabetes Management: Qualitative Study Exploring Interactions Among Patients and Health Care Professionals


    Background: The diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management has generated a debate on the ways in which ICTs can support the patient-provider relationship. Several studies have focused on text messages. Most of the literature proposes quantitative analysis of the impact of text messaging on the clinical conditions of patients and/or their satisfaction with the technology, while the qualitative studies have focused mainly on patients’ perceptions about strengths and weaknesses of this technology. Objective: In contrast to past studies, we adopted a qualitative approach for the in-depth examination of patient-health care professionals’ interactions in text messaging. Methods: The study focused on the use of the Trento Cartella Clinica del Cittadino Diabetes System (TreC-DS), a digital platform with a built-in messaging system, in two diabetes centers, integrating message analysis with interviews with patients and health care professionals. Each center focused on a specific patient profile: the first one focused on pregnant women with T1D and the second one focused on adult patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Results: The main results of the study were as follows: (1) Health care professionals and patients perceived the messaging system as useful for sharing information (ie, pregnant women for prescriptions and adults with poorly controlled diabetes for advice); (2) The content and communication styles of the two centers differed: in the case of pregnant women, interactions via text messaging were markedly prescriptive, while in the case of adult patients with poorly controlled diabetes, they were conceived as open dialogues; and (3) Conversations were initiated mainly by professionals; in the cases considered, it was mainly the diabetes center that decided whether a messaging conversation was needed. Conclusions: The results show how the features of interactions of text messaging changed based on the patient profiles in two different centers. In addition, in both diabetes centers that were involved, the system seems to have laid a foundation for a closer relationship between patients and health care professionals.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Enhanced Self-Efficacy and Behavioral Changes Among Patients With Diabetes: Cloud-Based Mobile Health Platform and Mobile App Service


    Background: The prevalence of chronic disease is increasing rapidly. Health promotion models have shifted toward patient-centered care and self-efficacy. Devices and mobile app in the Internet of Things (IoT) have become critical self-management tools for collecting and analyzing personal data to improve individual health outcomes. However, the precise effects of Web-based interventions on self-efficacy and the related motivation factors behind individuals’ behavioral changes have not been determined. Objective: The objective of this study was to gain insight into patients' self-efficacy with newly diagnosed diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus) and analyze the association of patient-centered health promotion behavior and to examine the implications of the results for IoT and mobile health mobile app features. Methods: The study used data from the electronic health database (n=3128). An experimental design (n=121) and randomized controlled trials were employed to determine patient preferences in the health promotion program (n=62) and mobile self-management education (n=28). The transtheoretical model was used as a framework for observing self-management behavior for the improvement of individual health, and the theory of planned behavior was used to evaluate personal goals, execution, outcome, and personal preferences. A mobile app was used to determine individualized health promotion interventions and to apply these interventions to improve patients’ self-management and self-efficacy. Results: Mobile questionnaires were administered for pre- and postintervention assessment through mobile app. A dynamic questionnaire allocation method was used to follow up and monitor patient behavioral changes in the subsequent 6 to 18 months. Participants at a high risk of problems related to blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥120 mm Hg) and body mass index (≥23 kg/m2) indicated high motivation to change and to achieve high scores in the self-care knowledge assessment (n=49, 95% CI −0.26% to −0.24%, P=.052). The associated clinical outcomes in the case group with the mobile-based intervention were slightly better than in the control group (glycated hemoglobin mean −1.25%, 95% CI 6.36 to 7.47, P=.002). In addition, 86% (42/49) of the participants improved their health knowledge through the mobile-based app and information and communications technology. The behavior-change compliance rate was higher among the women than among the men. In addition, the personal characteristics of steadiness and dominance corresponded with a higher compliance rate in the dietary and wellness intervention (83%, 81/98). Most participants (71%, 70/98) also increased their attention to healthy eating, being active, and monitoring their condition (30% 21/70, 21% 15/70, and 20% 14/70, respectively). Conclusions: The overall compliance rate was discovered to be higher after the mobile app–based health intervention. Various intervention strategies based on patient characteristics, health care–related word-of-mouth communication, and social media may be used to increase self-efficacy and improve clinical outcomes. Additional research should be conducted to determine the most influential factors and the most effective adherence management techniques.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Achieving Value-Based Care in Chronic Disease Management: Intervention Study


    Background: The World Health Organization notes that diabetes, a chronic disease, is a silent epidemic, and by 2020 there will be a 54% rise in the total number of individuals diagnosed with this disease. These are alarming figures that have significant repercussions for the quality of life of individuals and their families as well as for the financial stress of health care systems globally. Early detection and proactive management of diabetes is essential. The Diamond solution provides diabetes self-management by enabling patients to send details about their blood sugar readings at specific times to their nominated care coordinator to receive recommendations for diet and exercise and insulin titration. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the usability, acceptability, and fidelity of the Diamond diabetes monitoring device for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Specifically assessed were (1) patient compliance, (2) patient satisfaction, (3) level of glycemic control achieved, and (4) health professional satisfaction. Methods: Using a design science research perspective, the Diamond diabetes monitoring device solution was adapted to the Australian health care environment. Once the solution was deemed fit for purpose by the director of the OB/GYN clinical institute and on securing all relevant ethics approvals, a 2-period 2-arm nonblinded crossover clinical trial was conducted for 8 weeks total time with crossover at 4 weeks to establish proof of concept, usability, and fidelity. The patient perspective was assessed by using structured questionnaires at 4 specific stages of the project, while the clinician perspective was captured via semistructured interviews and unstructured questionnaires. Results: The 10 patients studied reported preferring standard care with the technology solution to standard care alone. Further, all clinicians involved concurred that the technology solution greatly assisted their ability to provide higher value patient-centered care. They also noted that it was extremely helpful for assisting in systematically monitoring glucose levels and any/all changes and trends. Conclusions: Based on these initial findings, we offer a holistic pervasive approach to enable the achievement of value-based, patient-centered care in chronic disease management. Key lessons include the importance when designing such solutions to focus on the two primary user groups (patients and clinicians).

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Philips Communications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Influence of Patient Characteristics and Psychological Needs on Diabetes Mobile App Usability in Adults With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes: Crossover Randomized...


    Background: More than 1100 diabetes mobile apps are available, but app usage by patients is low. App usability may be influenced by patient factors such as age, sex, and psychological needs. Objective: Guided by Self-Determination Theory, the purposes of this study were to (1) assess the effect of patient characteristics on app usability, and (2) determine whether patient characteristics and psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and connectivity)—important for motivation in diabetes care—are associated with app usability. Methods: Using a crossover randomized design, 92 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes tested two Android apps (mySugr and OnTrack) for seven tasks including data entry, blood glucose (BG) reporting, and data sharing. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine associations between patient characteristics, psychological needs, user satisfaction, and user performance (task time, success, and accuracy). Results: Participants had a mean age of 54 (range 19-74) years, and were predominantly white (62%, 57/92), female (59%, 54/92), with type 2 diabetes (70%, 64/92), and had education beyond high school (67%, 61/92). Participants rated an overall user satisfaction score of 62 (SD 18), which is considered marginally acceptable. The satisfaction mean score for each app was 55 (SD 18) for mySugr and 68 (SD 15) for OnTrack. The mean task completion time for all seven tasks was 7 minutes, with a mean task success of 82% and an accuracy rate of 68%. Higher user satisfaction was observed for patients with less education (P=.04) and those reporting more competence (P=.02), autonomy (P=.006), or connectivity with a health care provider (P=.03). User performance was associated with age, sex, education, diabetes duration, and autonomy. Older patients required more time (95% CI 1.1-3.2) and had less successful task completion (95% CI 3.5-14.3%). Men needed more time (P=.01) and more technical support than women (P=.04). High school education or less was associated with lower task success (P=.003). Diabetes duration of ≥10 years was associated with lower task accuracy (P=.02). Patients who desired greater autonomy and were interested in learning their patterns of BG and carbohydrates had greater task success (P=.049). Conclusions: Diabetes app usability was associated with psychological needs that are important for motivation. To enhance patient motivation to use diabetes apps for self-management, clinicians should address competence, autonomy, and connectivity by teaching BG pattern recognition and lifestyle planning, customizing BG targets, and reviewing home-monitored data via email. App usability could be improved for older male users and those with less education and greater diabetes duration by tailoring app training and providing ongoing technical support.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Diabetes, Care Homes, and the Influence of Technology on Practice and Care Delivery in Care Homes: Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis


    Background: Diabetes is increasing in prevalence and complexity in the care home setting, affecting up to a quarter of care home residents. Health outcomes for these residents are impacted by management of the disease, health care professionals (HCPs)’ decision-making skills within the care home setting, and access to specialist services. The use of technology has the potential to recognize opportunities for early intervention that enables efficient responsive care, taking a fundamental role in linking the care home community to wider multidisciplinary teams for support. Objective: The aim of this paper was to identify evidence that explores factors relevant to the use of technology in and around the care home setting to aid in the management of diabetes. Methods: Databases searched using a structured prespecified approach included: PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), OVID Nursing database, Scopus, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the King’s Fund from 2012 to 2017: handsearching was undertaken additionally for any gray literature. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocol was used as protocol with Risk of Bias in Systematic reviews a tool to assess the risk of bias across studies. Studies had to include interventions that combined technology to or from the care home setting to support residents living with diabetes. Results: The combined search strategy identified a total of 493 electronic records. Of these, 171 papers were screened for eligibility, 66 full papers were accessed, and 13 have been included in this study. Qualitative synthesis has identified different strands of research evidence in what and how technology is currently being used in and around care homes to enhance diabetes management. New initiatives and implementations of technology and emerging models of care that included the use of technology have also been included. Conclusions: By triangulating the perspectives of HCPs, practitioners, specialists, and members of the care home community, the authors anticipate that this review will represent an up-to-date, evidence-based overview of the potential for using technology within the care home setting for diabetes management as well as stimulate research in this area.

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