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Journal Description

JMIR Diabetes (JD, Editor-in-Chief: Caroline Richardson) is a Pubmed-indexed sister journal of JMIR (the leading open-access journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2017: 4.671). JMIR Diabetes focuses on technologies, medical devices, apps, engineering, informatics and patient education for diabetes prevention, self-management, care, and cure, to help people with diabetes.

As open access journal JD is read by clinicians and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies, as well as on diabetes prevention and epidemiology.

We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews) covering for example wearable devices and trackers, mobile apps, glucose monitoring (including emerging technologies such as Google contact lens), medical devices for insulin and metabolic peptide delivery, closed loop systems and artificial pancreas, telemedicine, web-based diabetes education and elearning, innovations for patient self-management and "quantified self", diabetes-specific EHR improvements, clinical or consumer-focused software, diabetes epidemiology and surveillance, crowdsourcing and quantified self-based research data, new sensors and actuators to be applied to diabetes.


Recent Articles:

  • A diabetes blood sugar test kit. Source: Foter; Copyright: Jessica Merz; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Text Messaging and Type 1 Diabetes Management: Qualitative Study Exploring Interactions Among Patients and Health Care Professionals


    Background: The diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) management has generated a debate on the ways in which ICTs can support the patient-provider relationship. Several studies have focused on text messages. Most of the literature proposes quantitative analysis of the impact of text messaging on the clinical conditions of patients and/or their satisfaction with the technology, while the qualitative studies have focused mainly on patients’ perceptions about strengths and weaknesses of this technology. Objective: In contrast to past studies, we adopted a qualitative approach for the in-depth examination of patient-health care professionals’ interactions in text messaging. Methods: The study focused on the use of the Trento Cartella Clinica del Cittadino Diabetes System (TreC-DS), a digital platform with a built-in messaging system, in two diabetes centers, integrating message analysis with interviews with patients and health care professionals. Each center focused on a specific patient profile: the first one focused on pregnant women with T1D and the second one focused on adult patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Results: The main results of the study were as follows: (1) Health care professionals and patients perceived the messaging system as useful for sharing information (ie, pregnant women for prescriptions and adults with poorly controlled diabetes for advice); (2) The content and communication styles of the two centers differed: in the case of pregnant women, interactions via text messaging were markedly prescriptive, while in the case of adult patients with poorly controlled diabetes, they were conceived as open dialogues; and (3) Conversations were initiated mainly by professionals; in the cases considered, it was mainly the diabetes center that decided whether a messaging conversation was needed. Conclusions: The results show how the features of interactions of text messaging changed based on the patient profiles in two different centers. In addition, in both diabetes centers that were involved, the system seems to have laid a foundation for a closer relationship between patients and health care professionals.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Enhanced Self-Efficacy and Behavioral Changes Among Patients With Diabetes: Cloud-Based Mobile Health Platform and Mobile App Service


    Background: The prevalence of chronic disease is increasing rapidly. Health promotion models have shifted toward patient-centered care and self-efficacy. Devices and mobile app in the Internet of Things (IoT) have become critical self-management tools for collecting and analyzing personal data to improve individual health outcomes. However, the precise effects of Web-based interventions on self-efficacy and the related motivation factors behind individuals’ behavioral changes have not been determined. Objective: The objective of this study was to gain insight into patients' self-efficacy with newly diagnosed diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus) and analyze the association of patient-centered health promotion behavior and to examine the implications of the results for IoT and mobile health mobile app features. Methods: The study used data from the electronic health database (n=3128). An experimental design (n=121) and randomized controlled trials were employed to determine patient preferences in the health promotion program (n=62) and mobile self-management education (n=28). The transtheoretical model was used as a framework for observing self-management behavior for the improvement of individual health, and the theory of planned behavior was used to evaluate personal goals, execution, outcome, and personal preferences. A mobile app was used to determine individualized health promotion interventions and to apply these interventions to improve patients’ self-management and self-efficacy. Results: Mobile questionnaires were administered for pre- and postintervention assessment through mobile app. A dynamic questionnaire allocation method was used to follow up and monitor patient behavioral changes in the subsequent 6 to 18 months. Participants at a high risk of problems related to blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥120 mm Hg) and body mass index (≥23 kg/m2) indicated high motivation to change and to achieve high scores in the self-care knowledge assessment (n=49, 95% CI −0.26% to −0.24%, P=.052). The associated clinical outcomes in the case group with the mobile-based intervention were slightly better than in the control group (glycated hemoglobin mean −1.25%, 95% CI 6.36 to 7.47, P=.002). In addition, 86% (42/49) of the participants improved their health knowledge through the mobile-based app and information and communications technology. The behavior-change compliance rate was higher among the women than among the men. In addition, the personal characteristics of steadiness and dominance corresponded with a higher compliance rate in the dietary and wellness intervention (83%, 81/98). Most participants (71%, 70/98) also increased their attention to healthy eating, being active, and monitoring their condition (30% 21/70, 21% 15/70, and 20% 14/70, respectively). Conclusions: The overall compliance rate was discovered to be higher after the mobile app–based health intervention. Various intervention strategies based on patient characteristics, health care–related word-of-mouth communication, and social media may be used to increase self-efficacy and improve clinical outcomes. Additional research should be conducted to determine the most influential factors and the most effective adherence management techniques.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Achieving Value-Based Care in Chronic Disease Management: Intervention Study


    Background: The World Health Organization notes that diabetes, a chronic disease, is a silent epidemic, and by 2020 there will be a 54% rise in the total number of individuals diagnosed with this disease. These are alarming figures that have significant repercussions for the quality of life of individuals and their families as well as for the financial stress of health care systems globally. Early detection and proactive management of diabetes is essential. The Diamond solution provides diabetes self-management by enabling patients to send details about their blood sugar readings at specific times to their nominated care coordinator to receive recommendations for diet and exercise and insulin titration. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the usability, acceptability, and fidelity of the Diamond diabetes monitoring device for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Specifically assessed were (1) patient compliance, (2) patient satisfaction, (3) level of glycemic control achieved, and (4) health professional satisfaction. Methods: Using a design science research perspective, the Diamond diabetes monitoring device solution was adapted to the Australian health care environment. Once the solution was deemed fit for purpose by the director of the OB/GYN clinical institute and on securing all relevant ethics approvals, a 2-period 2-arm nonblinded crossover clinical trial was conducted for 8 weeks total time with crossover at 4 weeks to establish proof of concept, usability, and fidelity. The patient perspective was assessed by using structured questionnaires at 4 specific stages of the project, while the clinician perspective was captured via semistructured interviews and unstructured questionnaires. Results: The 10 patients studied reported preferring standard care with the technology solution to standard care alone. Further, all clinicians involved concurred that the technology solution greatly assisted their ability to provide higher value patient-centered care. They also noted that it was extremely helpful for assisting in systematically monitoring glucose levels and any/all changes and trends. Conclusions: Based on these initial findings, we offer a holistic pervasive approach to enable the achievement of value-based, patient-centered care in chronic disease management. Key lessons include the importance when designing such solutions to focus on the two primary user groups (patients and clinicians).

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Philips Communications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Influence of Patient Characteristics and Psychological Needs on Diabetes Mobile App Usability in Adults With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes: Crossover Randomized...


    Background: More than 1100 diabetes mobile apps are available, but app usage by patients is low. App usability may be influenced by patient factors such as age, sex, and psychological needs. Objective: Guided by Self-Determination Theory, the purposes of this study were to (1) assess the effect of patient characteristics on app usability, and (2) determine whether patient characteristics and psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and connectivity)—important for motivation in diabetes care—are associated with app usability. Methods: Using a crossover randomized design, 92 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes tested two Android apps (mySugr and OnTrack) for seven tasks including data entry, blood glucose (BG) reporting, and data sharing. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine associations between patient characteristics, psychological needs, user satisfaction, and user performance (task time, success, and accuracy). Results: Participants had a mean age of 54 (range 19-74) years, and were predominantly white (62%, 57/92), female (59%, 54/92), with type 2 diabetes (70%, 64/92), and had education beyond high school (67%, 61/92). Participants rated an overall user satisfaction score of 62 (SD 18), which is considered marginally acceptable. The satisfaction mean score for each app was 55 (SD 18) for mySugr and 68 (SD 15) for OnTrack. The mean task completion time for all seven tasks was 7 minutes, with a mean task success of 82% and an accuracy rate of 68%. Higher user satisfaction was observed for patients with less education (P=.04) and those reporting more competence (P=.02), autonomy (P=.006), or connectivity with a health care provider (P=.03). User performance was associated with age, sex, education, diabetes duration, and autonomy. Older patients required more time (95% CI 1.1-3.2) and had less successful task completion (95% CI 3.5-14.3%). Men needed more time (P=.01) and more technical support than women (P=.04). High school education or less was associated with lower task success (P=.003). Diabetes duration of ≥10 years was associated with lower task accuracy (P=.02). Patients who desired greater autonomy and were interested in learning their patterns of BG and carbohydrates had greater task success (P=.049). Conclusions: Diabetes app usability was associated with psychological needs that are important for motivation. To enhance patient motivation to use diabetes apps for self-management, clinicians should address competence, autonomy, and connectivity by teaching BG pattern recognition and lifestyle planning, customizing BG targets, and reviewing home-monitored data via email. App usability could be improved for older male users and those with less education and greater diabetes duration by tailoring app training and providing ongoing technical support.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Diabetes, Care Homes, and the Influence of Technology on Practice and Care Delivery in Care Homes: Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis


    Background: Diabetes is increasing in prevalence and complexity in the care home setting, affecting up to a quarter of care home residents. Health outcomes for these residents are impacted by management of the disease, health care professionals (HCPs)’ decision-making skills within the care home setting, and access to specialist services. The use of technology has the potential to recognize opportunities for early intervention that enables efficient responsive care, taking a fundamental role in linking the care home community to wider multidisciplinary teams for support. Objective: The aim of this paper was to identify evidence that explores factors relevant to the use of technology in and around the care home setting to aid in the management of diabetes. Methods: Databases searched using a structured prespecified approach included: PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), OVID Nursing database, Scopus, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the King’s Fund from 2012 to 2017: handsearching was undertaken additionally for any gray literature. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocol was used as protocol with Risk of Bias in Systematic reviews a tool to assess the risk of bias across studies. Studies had to include interventions that combined technology to or from the care home setting to support residents living with diabetes. Results: The combined search strategy identified a total of 493 electronic records. Of these, 171 papers were screened for eligibility, 66 full papers were accessed, and 13 have been included in this study. Qualitative synthesis has identified different strands of research evidence in what and how technology is currently being used in and around care homes to enhance diabetes management. New initiatives and implementations of technology and emerging models of care that included the use of technology have also been included. Conclusions: By triangulating the perspectives of HCPs, practitioners, specialists, and members of the care home community, the authors anticipate that this review will represent an up-to-date, evidence-based overview of the potential for using technology within the care home setting for diabetes management as well as stimulate research in this area.

  • Person using a diabetes self-management app. Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Experiences of Patients With a Diabetes Self-Care App Developed Based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Before-and-After Study


    Background: Mobile phones have been actively used in various ways for diabetes self-care. Mobile phone apps can manage lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and medication without time or place restrictions. A systematic review has found these apps to be effective in reducing blood glucose. However, the existing apps were developed and evaluated without a theoretical framework to explain the process of changes in diabetes self-care behaviors. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the diabetes self-care app that we developed by measuring differences in diabetes self-care factors between before and after using the app with the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model of Diabetes Self-Care (IMB-DSC). Methods: We conducted a single-group pre- and postintervention study with a convenience sample of diabetes patients. A total of 38 adult patients with diabetes who had an Android smartphone were recruited. After conducting a preliminary survey of those who agreed to participate in the study, we provided them with a manual and a tutorial video about the diabetes self-care app. The app has functions for education, recommendations, writing a diary, recording, goal setting, sharing, communication, feedback, and interfacing with a glucometer, and it was applied for 4 weeks. We measured the general characteristics of participants, their history of diabetes self-care app usage, IMB-DSC factors, and blood glucose levels. The IMB-DSC factors of information, personal motivation, social motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors were measured using an assessment tool consisting of 87 items extracted from the Diabetes Knowledge Test, third version of the Diabetes Attitude Scale, Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and Diabetes Self-Management Assessment Report Tool. Results: The mean age of the participants was 43.87 years. A total 30 participants out of 38 (79%) had type 2 diabetes and 8 participants (21%) had type 1 diabetes. The most frequently used app function was recording, which was used by 34 participants out of 38 (89%). Diabetes self-care behaviors (P=.02) and diabetes self-care social motivation (P=.05) differed significantly between pre- and postintervention, but there was no significant difference in diabetes self-care information (P=.85), diabetes self-care personal motivation (P=.57), or diabetes self-care behavioral skills (P=.89) between before and after using the diabetes self-care app. Conclusions: Diabetes self-care social motivation was significantly improved with our diabetes self-care app by sharing experiences and sympathizing with other diabetes patients. Diabetes self-care behavior was also significantly improved with the diabetes self-care app by providing an interface with a glucometer that removes the effort of manual input. Diabetes self-care information, diabetes self-care personal motivation, and diabetes self-care behavioral skills were not significantly improved. However, they will be improved with additional offline interventions such as reflective listening and simulation.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Obesity Canada; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Short Message Service Text Message Support for Weight Loss in Patients With Prediabetes: Pragmatic Trial


    Background: To reach all 84.1 million US adults estimated to have prediabetes warrants need for low-cost and less burdensome alternatives to the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP). In a previous randomized controlled trial, we demonstrated the efficacy of a 12-month short message service text message support program called SMS4PreDM amongst individuals with prediabetes. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of SMS4PreDM in a pragmatic study following dissemination in a safety net health care system. Methods: English- and Spanish-speaking patients at risk for diabetes (eg, glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4) were referred by their providers and offered either NDPP classes, SMS4PreDM, or both. This analysis focuses on weight change among 285 SMS4PreDM-only participants who began the year-long intervention between October 2015 and April 2017 with accompanying pre- and postweights, as compared with 1233 usual-care control patients at risk for diabetes, who were identified from electronic health records during this time but not referred. Weight outcomes included time-related mean weight change and frequency of either ≥3% weight loss or gain. Mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, race, ethnicity, preferred language, and baseline weight. A secondary analysis was stratified by language. We also assessed implementation factors, including retention and cost. Results: SMS4PreDM participants had high retention (259 of 285 patients or 91.0% completion at 12-months, ) and a time-related mean weight loss of 1.3 pounds (SE 0.74), compared with the control group’s slight mean weight gain of 0.25 pounds (SE 0.59; P=.004). Spanish-speaking SMS4PreDM participants (n=130) had a time-related mean weight loss of 1.11 pounds (SE 1.22) compared with weight gain of 0.96 pounds (SE 1.14) in Spanish-speaking controls (n=382, P<.001). English-speaking intervention participants (n=155) had a comparable time-related mean weight change (–0.89 pounds; SE 0.93) as English-speaking controls (n=828; 0.31 pounds gained; SE 0.62, P=.14). Overall, frequency of achieving ≥3% weight loss was comparable between groups (54 of 285 or 19.0% of SMS4PreDM participants [95% CI 14.8-23.9] vs 266 of 1233 or 21.6% of controls [95% CI 19.3-24.0]; P=.33). Nonetheless, more controls had ≥3% weight gain compared with intervention participants (337 of 1233 or 27.3% of controls [95% CI 24.9-29.9] vs 57 of 285 or 20.0% of SMS4PreDM participants [95% CI 16.8-25.1]; P=.01). SMS4PreDM delivery costs were US $100.92 per participant. Conclusions: Although SMS4PreDM was relatively low cost to deliver and demonstrated high retention, weight loss outcomes may not be sufficient to serve as a population health strategy.

  • Person reading a blog. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Glycated Hemoglobin Differences Among Blog-Reading Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Compared With Those Who Do Not Read Blogs: Cross-Sectional Study


    Background: Of the estimated 23.1 million individuals diagnosed with diabetes, approximately 5% have type 1 diabetes (T1D). It has been proposed that this number will triple by 2050. With increases in technology use and resources available, many individuals are using insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) to help manage their T1D. They are also using online resources such as social media to find more information and advice based on real-life experiences from peers. Blogs are a particular social media modality often used by people with T1D but have not been widely investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) differences between blog readers and blog nonusers in a population of adults with T1D. This study also looked at differences in technology use in these two groups, as well as HbA1c differences in blog use and technology subgroups. Methods: Participants were recruited both by mail and by online T1D-themed blog postings. Respondents completed a secure online eligibility assessment and were asked questions related to their T1D, blog and internet use, and insulin pump and CGM use. Demographics were also collected. Differences between blog readers and blog nonusers were tested via chi-square and t tests. Mann-Whitney U tests, Fisher exact tests, and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to test for differences in self-reported HbA1c between groups and subgroups. Results: A total of 282 eligible participants completed the survey (214 blog readers, 68 blog nonusers). Average duration of diabetes was 21.2 years, 77.7% (219/282) were female, 81.2% (229/282) used an insulin pump, 66.3% (187/282) used a CGM, and 95.7% (270/282) were white. HbA1c was lower for blog readers (7.0%) than blog nonusers (7.5%), P=.006; for insulin pump users (7.0%) than multiple daily injections (7.7%), P=.001; and for CGM users (7.0%) than CGM nonusers (7.5%), P=.001. After adjusting for significant covariates, the association between blog use and HbA1c remained significant (P=.04). ANOVA modeling also demonstrated significant differences in HbA1c between blog users and nonusers among subgroups by pump use and CGM use (P<.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that reading blogs is associated with lower HbA1c values. While association does not prove causation, blog readers have the benefit of learning information from peers and having 24/7 access to a community of individuals with similar daily life struggles, where they are able to ask questions and seek advice.

  • Source: Pixnio; Copyright: Amanda Mills, USCDCP; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Appropriation of Mobile Health for Diabetes Self-Management: Lessons From Two Qualitative Studies


    Background: To achieve clarity on mobile health’s (mHealth’s) potential in the diabetes context, it is necessary to understand potential users’ needs and expectations, as well as the factors determining their mHealth use. Recently, a few studies have examined the user perspective in the mHealth context, but their explanatory value is constrained because of their limitation to adoption factors. Objective: This paper uses the mobile phone appropriation model to examine how individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes integrate mobile technology into their everyday self-management. The study advances the field beyond mere usage metrics or the simple dichotomy of adoption versus rejection. Methods: Data were gathered in 2 qualitative studies in Singapore and Germany, with 21 and 16 respondents, respectively. Conducting semistructured interviews, we asked respondents about their explicit use of diabetes-related apps, their general use of varied mobile technologies to manage their disease, and their daily practices of self-management. Results: The analysis revealed that although some individuals with diabetes used dedicated diabetes apps, most used tools across the entire mobile-media spectrum, including lifestyle and messaging apps, traditional health information websites and forums. The material indicated general barriers to usage, including financial, technical, and temporal restrictions. Conclusions: In sum, we find that use patterns differ regarding users’ evaluations, expectancies, and appropriation styles, which might explain the inconclusive picture of effects studies in the diabetes mHealth context.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: GovernmentZA; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-ND).

    Perceptions and Acceptability of Text Messaging for Diabetes Care in Primary Care in Argentina: Exploratory Study


    Background: Engagement in self-care behaviors that are essential to optimize diabetes care is challenging for many patients with diabetes. mHealth interventions have been shown to be effective in improving health care outcomes in diabetes. However, more research is needed on patient perceptions to support these interventions, especially in resource settings in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: The goal of the research was to explore perceptions and acceptability of a short message service (SMS) text messaging intervention for diabetes care in underserved people with diabetes in Argentina. Methods: A qualitative exploratory methodology was adopted as part of the evaluation of a program to strengthen diabetes services in primary care clinics located in low-resource settings. The diabetes program included a text messaging intervention for people with diabetes. A total of 24 semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with people with diabetes. Results: Twenty-four middle-aged persons with diabetes were interviewed. Acceptability was considered adequate in terms of its actual use, frequency, and the role of texts as a reminder. We found that text messages could be a mediating device in the patient’s learning processes. Also, being exposed to the texts seemed to help bring about changes in risk perception and care practices and to function as psychosocial support. Another relevant finding was the role of text messaging as a potential facilitator in diabetes care. In this sense, we observed a strong association between receiving text messages and having a better patient-physician relationship. Additionally, social barriers that affect diabetes care such as socioeconomic and psychosocial vulnerability were identified. Conclusions: Our findings show positive contributions of a text messaging intervention for the care of people with diabetes. We consider that an SMS strategy has potential to be replicated in other contexts. However, further studies are needed to explore its sustainability and long-term impact from the perspective of patients.

  • Source: The Authors / Placeit; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Electronic Health Lifestyle Coaching Among Diabetes Patients in a Real-Life Municipality Setting: Observational Study


    Background: Internet and mobile interventions aiming to promote healthy lifestyle have attracted much attention because of their scalability and accessibility, low costs, privacy and user control, potential for use in real-life settings, as well as opportunities for real-time modifications and interactive advices. A real-life electronic health (eHealth) lifestyle coaching intervention was implemented in 8 Danish municipalities between summer 2016 and summer 2018. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects associated with the eHealth intervention among diabetes patients in a real-life municipal setting. The eHealth intervention is based on an initial meeting, establishing a strong empathic relationship, followed by digital lifestyle coaching and collaboration supported by a Web-based community among patients. Methods: We conducted an observational study examining the effect of an eHealth intervention on self-reported weight change among 103 obese diabetes patients in a real-life municipal setting. The patients in the study participated in the eHealth intervention between 3 and 12 months. A weight change was observed at 6, 9, and 12 months. We used regression methods to estimate the impacts of the intervention on weight change. Results: We found that the eHealth intervention significantly reduced weight among diabetes patients, on average 4.3% of the initial body mass, which corresponds to 4.8 kg over a mean period of 7.3 months. Patients who were in intervention for more than 9 months achieved a weight reduction of 6.3% or 6.8 kg. Conclusions: This study brings forward evidence of a positive effect of a real-life eHealth lifestyle intervention on diabetes patients’ lifestyle in a municipal setting. Future research is needed to show if the effect is sustainable from a long-term perspective.

  • Continuous glucose monitoring–based counseling in outpatient clinic settings. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Impact of New Technologies for Middle-Aged and Older Patients: In-Depth Interviews With Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring


    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) uses subcutaneous sensors and records the average interstitial sensor current every 5 min in the recorder; data are subsequently exported to a computer 4 to 7 days later when calibration with self-measured blood glucose is made retrospectively. How middle-aged and older patients perceive the added technology intervention is not clear. Objective: The study aimed to understand the factors associated with the adoption of new technology in diabetes care, to understand the feelings and behaviors while using it, and to determine the changes in attitudes and behavior after completing the use of the new technology at the 3-month follow-up. Methods: Middle-aged and older type 2 diabetes patients who had received professional continuous glucose monitoring (iPro 2 [Medtronic]) were invited for semistructured in-depth interviews on the day of the CGM sensor removal and at 3 months after CGM-based counseling. A phenomenography approach was used to analyze the interview data. Results: A total of 20 type 2 diabetes patients (aged 53 to 72 years, 13 males and 7 females, 4 to 40 years duration of diabetes, mean glycated hemoglobin 8.54% [SD 0.71%]) completed 2 sections of semistructured in-depth interviews. Physician guidance and participant motivation toward problem solving were found to be factors associated with adoption of the device. Participants indicated that technology can be a reminder, a supervisor, and a visualizer of blood glucose, all of which are helpful for disease management. However, CGM is somewhat inconvenient, and some participants also reported that the provision of this new technology might be a hint of disease progression. There was a higher percentage of women compared with men who reported that CGM can be a reminder or a supervisor to help them with diet control. Conclusions: Physician guidance and participants’ degree of motivation are keys to adopting new technology in the case of middle-aged and older adults. Although the CGM sensor may cause inconvenience to patients on their limited body movement when wearing the device, it is helpful for diet control and is an effective behavioral modification tool that offers support, especially in the case of women.

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  • Awareness of Diabetic Eye Diseases among Diabetic In-Patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, cross sectional study.

    Date Submitted: May 20, 2019

    Open Peer Review Period: May 23, 2019 - Jul 18, 2019

    Background: Background: Saudi Arabia is the second most common country affected by diabetes mellitus in the Middle East, and it is the seventh in the world. Approximately 10% of diabetic patients deve...

    Background: Background: Saudi Arabia is the second most common country affected by diabetes mellitus in the Middle East, and it is the seventh in the world. Approximately 10% of diabetic patients develop visual impairment and blindness due to ocular complications. These could be prevented by increasing awareness. Objective: Aim: To assess the awareness of diabetic eye disease among diabetic in-patients. Methods: Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 241 diabetic in-patients at treated between 2014 and 2017 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through a telephone-based interview and analysis was performed using SPSS. The chi-square test was used to investigate the relationship between demographic data and awareness to diabetic eye disease. Results: Results: A total of 241 patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 140 (58.1%) were males. Approximately 80.9% of the patients knew about diabetic eye disease. Patients with a higher educational level and economic status were more aware about diabetic eye disease. A considerable proportion of the patients (79.7%) were aware that retinopathy could be caused by diabetes. Conversely, only 41.9% and 32.8% were aware that cataract and glaucoma could be caused by diabetes mellitus, respectively. Conclusions: Conclusion: Most patients were aware of the ophthalmologic complications of diabetes. Despite being aware of diabetic retinopathy, more than half of the patients did not know that it was curable; hence, more public health education is needed.