Emerging technologies, medical devices, apps, sensors, and informatics to help people with diabetes
Editor-in-Chief: Caroline R. Richardson, MD, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, USA
Caroline R. Richardson, MD, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, USA
JMIR Diabetes (JD, Editor-in-Chief: Caroline Richardson) is a PubMed-indexed journal of JMIR, the leading open-access journal in health informatics. JMIR Diabetes focuses on technologies, medical devices, apps, engineering, informatics and patient education for diabetes prevention, self-management, care, and cure, to help people with diabetes.
As an open access journal, JD is read by clinicians and patients alike and has (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies, as well as on diabetes prevention and epidemiology.
We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews) covering for example wearable devices and trackers, mobile apps, glucose monitoring (including emerging technologies such as Google contact lens), medical devices for insulin and metabolic peptide delivery, closed loop systems and artificial pancreas, telemedicine, web-based diabetes education and elearning, innovations for patient self-management and "quantified self," diabetes-specific EHR improvements, clinical or consumer-focused software, diabetes epidemiology and surveillance, crowdsourcing and quantified self-based research data, new sensors and actuators to be applied to diabetes.
Caregivers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) maintain close contact with providers for several weeks to facilitate rapid adjustments in insulin dosing regimens. Traditionally, patient glucose values are relayed by telephone for provider feedback, but digital health technology can now enable the remote sharing of glucose data via mobile apps.
Lifestyle is the focus of type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention strategies. Prevention strategies using mobile health (mHealth)–based therapy have shown positive results for T2D prevention in high-income settings, but little is known about their effectiveness in low- and middle-income populations where the burden of T2D is substantial. “Vida Sana” is a web platform designed to record lifestyle habits and medication use within a lifestyle change program.
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a diabetes prevention program (DPP) in lifestyle modifications that can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes among individuals at risk. Digital DPPs have the potential to use technology, in conjunction with behavior change science, to prevent prediabetes on a national and global scale.
Daily routines (eg, physical activity and sleep patterns) are important for diabetes self-management. Traditional research methods are not optimal for documenting long-term daily routine patterns in participants with glycemic conditions. Mobile health offers an effective approach for collecting users’ long-term daily activities and analyzing their daily routine patterns in relation to diabetes status.
Complications due to type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be mitigated through proper self-management that can positively change health behaviors. Technological tools are available to help people living with, or at risk of developing, T2D to manage their condition, and such tools provide a large repository of patient-generated health data (PGHD). Analytics can provide insights into the health behaviors of people living with T2D.
Self-management education is a fundamental aspect in the health care of people with diabetes to develop the necessary skills for the improvement of health outcomes. Patients are required to have the competencies to manage electronic information resources—that is, an appropriate level of digital health literacy. The European project IC-Health aimed to improve digital health literacy among people with diabetes through the cocreation of massive open online courses (MOOCs).
The COVID-19 pandemic has revolutionized health care for patients and providers alike. Telemedicine has moved from the periphery of our health care system to center stage more rapidly than anyone could have envisioned. Currently, virtual care has quite effectively replicated the traditional health system’s care delivery model and reimbursement structure—a patient makes an appointment, then sees a physician (except with video or phone replacing in-office visits) who makes a care plan, and the patient and physician meet again at a later timepoint to assess progress. Replicating this episodic care paradigm virtually has been invaluable for delivering care swiftly during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, we can and should do more with the connectedness and convenience that telemedicine technology enables. Continuous remote care, with a data-driven, proactive outreach to patients, represents a decisive step forward in contrast to the currently available episodic, reactive, patient-initiated care. In the context of continuous remote care, patient biometric and symptom data (patient entered and connected data) are assimilated in real time by artificial intelligence–enabled clinical platforms to bring physicians' and other health care team members’ attention to those patients who need intervention, whether this is via medication adjustments, acute care management, or lifestyle coaching. In this paper, we discuss how an innovative continuous remote care approach has improved outcomes in another deadly pandemic—type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The last two decades have witnessed a burgeoning rise in the prevalence of diabetes globally. It has already reached epidemic proportions in Saudi Arabia, with reported high risk among women. As a result, diabetes monitoring and self-management programs are being highly prioritized for diabetes control and management.
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